Answer: (c) All three.
All three activities mentioned in the statements are often considered and discussed for carbon capture and sequestration:
Spreading finely ground basalt rock on farmland extensively: This method, known as enhanced weathering, involves spreading finely ground basalt rock on farmland. The minerals in basalt react with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, forming stable carbonates. This process helps to capture and store carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Increasing the alkalinity of oceans by adding lime: This approach involves increasing the alkalinity of oceans by adding lime (calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide). By increasing the alkalinity, the oceans can absorb more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, acting as a carbon sink and helping to mitigate climate change.
Capturing carbon dioxide released by various industries and pumping it into abandoned subterranean mines in the form of carbonated water: This technique, known as carbon capture and storage (CCS), involves capturing carbon dioxide emissions from industrial processes and storing them in underground geological formations such as depleted oil and gas fields or saline aquifers. The captured carbon dioxide is compressed and injected underground in the form of carbonated water, where it is stored securely to prevent its release into the atmosphere.
Authenticative reference source:
The information provided in the explanation is based on the concepts of carbon capture and sequestration as discussed in environmental science and climate change literature. While specific references from NCERT books, Government of India websites, or international organization websites were not available, the concept of carbon capture and sequestration is well-established in scientific research and is widely discussed in various reports and publications by reputable organizations such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and International Energy Agency (IEA).