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Answer Outline 

1. Introduction

Brief Context: The period between 1905 to 1918 in the Indian National Movement witnessed ideological rifts between the Extremists and Moderates within the Indian National Congress, affecting the trajectory of the anti-colonial struggle.

Thesis Statement: This answer will evaluate how the ideological differences influenced the anti-colonial struggle, detailing the contributions and limitations of both factions.

2. Main Body

A. Ideological Differences

Topic Sentence: The Extremists and Moderates were divided mainly on the methods and immediacy of attaining self-rule.

Supporting Facts/Examples: While Moderates believed in constitutional methods, Extremists advocated for direct action.

Analysis: This ideological split led to different strategies being employed, from petitions to mass movements.

B. Contributions of Extremists

Topic Sentence: Extremists, led by leaders like Lokmanya Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal, reinvigorated the freedom struggle.

Supporting Facts/Examples: Tilak's "Swaraj is my birthright" became a rallying cry for self-rule.

Analysis: Their aggressive stance mobilized the masses but also led to repercussions such as Sedition charges against leaders.

C. Limitations of Extremists

Topic Sentence: The extremist approach was potent but came with limitations, such as factionalism and harsh government repression.

Supporting Facts/Examples: Tilak's imprisonment and the lack of a unified strategy were significant drawbacks.

Analysis: Their approach sometimes alienated potential allies and led to punitive measures.

(Include more points as needed)

4. Counter-Arguments

Counter-Argument 1: Some argue that the Moderates’ approach was effective in laying the groundwork for more radical movements later.

Rebuttal: While true, this approach took a longer time to bring tangible results and often lacked mass mobilization.

5. Conclusion

Summary: Both Extremists and Moderates made valuable contributions to the anti-colonial struggle, but their ideological differences resulted in different strategies and outcomes.

Closing Statement: Understanding these differences is crucial for a nuanced evaluation of this phase in India's quest for independence.

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