Brief Context: The period between 1905 to 1918 in the Indian National Movement witnessed ideological rifts between the Extremists and Moderates within the Indian National Congress, affecting the trajectory of the anti-colonial struggle.
Thesis Statement: This answer will evaluate how the ideological differences influenced the anti-colonial struggle, detailing the contributions and limitations of both factions.
2. Main Body
A. Ideological Differences
Topic Sentence: The Extremists and Moderates were divided mainly on the methods and immediacy of attaining self-rule.
Supporting Facts/Examples: While Moderates believed in constitutional methods, Extremists advocated for direct action.
Analysis: This ideological split led to different strategies being employed, from petitions to mass movements.
B. Contributions of Extremists
Topic Sentence: Extremists, led by leaders like Lokmanya Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal, reinvigorated the freedom struggle.
Supporting Facts/Examples: Tilak's "Swaraj is my birthright" became a rallying cry for self-rule.
Analysis: Their aggressive stance mobilized the masses but also led to repercussions such as Sedition charges against leaders.
C. Limitations of Extremists
Topic Sentence: The extremist approach was potent but came with limitations, such as factionalism and harsh government repression.
Supporting Facts/Examples: Tilak's imprisonment and the lack of a unified strategy were significant drawbacks.
Analysis: Their approach sometimes alienated potential allies and led to punitive measures.
(Include more points as needed)
Counter-Argument 1: Some argue that the Moderates’ approach was effective in laying the groundwork for more radical movements later.
Rebuttal: While true, this approach took a longer time to bring tangible results and often lacked mass mobilization.
Summary: Both Extremists and Moderates made valuable contributions to the anti-colonial struggle, but their ideological differences resulted in different strategies and outcomes.
Closing Statement: Understanding these differences is crucial for a nuanced evaluation of this phase in India's quest for independence.