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(a) Studying relationships among species of fauna

(b) Stimulating 'stem cells' to transform into diverse functional tissues

(c) Promoting clonal propagation of horticultural plants

(d) Assessing the efficacy of drugs by conducting series of drug trials on a population

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Answer:(a) Studying relationships among species of fauna.

Explanation:

Microsatellite DNA, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), refers to a specific type of genetic marker commonly used in genetic studies. These markers consist of short repeating sequences of DNA nucleotides. Microsatellite DNA analysis involves examining the variation in the number of repeats of these sequences among individuals within a population.

One of the major applications of microsatellite DNA analysis is studying relationships among species of fauna. By analyzing the genetic variation and similarity based on microsatellite markers, researchers can determine the genetic relatedness, population structure, and evolutionary relationships among different species or populations. This information helps in understanding biodiversity, population dynamics, and genetic diversity within and between species.

Microsatellite DNA analysis can also be utilized in other areas such as forensic science, genetic mapping, and conservation biology. However, its primary use and significance lie in studying relationships and genetic diversity among species of fauna.

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